Sailor Cull’s Sailing Blog

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Location: Fayston, Vermont, United States

Hi and welcome! I am a sailing and mountain enthusiast. I live on Cape Cod and in Vermont so I have the best of both worlds! I am a musician and computer programmer. I designed, produce and market a CDROM called Learn to Sail! with Multimedia! A digital textbook that delivers information in an entertaining, interactive way. Learn to Sail is a great accompaniment to sailing lessons. A digital textbook that delivers information in an entertaining, interactive way. Digital video is from Sail Magazine, and material is presented by voice, which is played concurrently with displayed text. And there are quizzes along the way to test your knowledge.

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Leaving a Mooring or Dock: Sailing a Triangular Course

Welcome aboard to my Sailing Tips Blog! Today we have Leaving a Mooring or Dock, and Sailing a Triangular Course. Like our Facebook Page and get a free sailing lesson app "How to turn a sailboat heading into the wind.

Leaving a Mooring A mooring is a stationary anchor for a boat. Instead of anchoring your boat each time after you have sailed, you simply tie up to a mooring. This is most appropriate for those who keep their boat in one area such as a harbor or right in front of their home.A mooring consists of three parts...a buoy at the top attched to a chain which is attached to a weight on the bottom. Once the sails are up and you're ready to go, follow these steps to leave a mooring. 1. The crew walks to the bow of the boat. 2. Uncleat the mooring line from the boat. 3. With mooring line in hand, walk back to the cockpit on the windward side of the boat, pulling the mooring line. This will force the bow to fall off the wind.4. The skipper heads down and the crew pulls in the main.5. Let go of the mooring line, watching out for moored boats and other obstructions as you sail off. Leaving a Dock When leaving a dock, always step into the center of the boat and lower the centerboard. Head the boat into the wind when raising the sail to leave. This is a very important thing to remember! If the wind is coming directly perpendicular to the pier, raise the sail. Have the helmsperson keep the tiller in the center while the crew givesa tremendous push at the bow.Keep the tiller in the middle until the boat has cleared the dock. The put the tiller onto the side of the boat in which you want the bow to go. Hold it there until the bow is off the wind. Then quickly pull the tiller back, trim the sail and go. If the wind is coming at angles other than perpendicular, push the bow away from the dock, head down and sail away!

Sail a Triangular Course
The purpose of sailing a triangular course is to practice all of the Points of Sail... Beating to windward, Reaching and Running. In sailing this course, you will also use both Coming About and Jibing. Get in your boat and do this excersise: Go to a place that has three buoys forming a triangle. If you cannot find one, make your own course. Step 1. Start at buoy #1, the leeward mark. Your next buoy, #2, is directly upwind, or windward. This leg of the course is where you will need to beat. Step 2. Round buoy #2 with the buoy on your port side. Step 3. Between buoys #2 and #3 proceed on a reach. Step 4. Jibe around buoy #3. Step 5. Proceed on a reach to buoy #1 and round it. Step 7. Proceed on a beat again to buoy #2 and round it, then proceed on a run.

Sailing Terms
Fore, Forward-Toward the bow of the boat.
Foul-When a line ends up somewhere it does not belong and becomes jammed. Lines can foul on blocks, winches and other objects on a boat.
Furl-To lower a sail. Sails are sometimes partially furled to reduce the amount of sail area in use without completely lowering the sail. This is known as reefing.
Moor-To attach a boat to a mooring, dock, post, anchor, etc.
Mooring-A place where a boat can be moored. Usually, a buoy marks the location of a firmly set anchor.
Mooring buoy-A buoy marking the location of a mooring. Usually attached to an anchor by a small pendant.
Mooring line-A line used to secure a boat to an anchor, dock or mooring.Mushroom anchor-A type of anchor with a heavy, inverted mushroom-shaped head. Mushroom anchors are used to anchor in mud and other soft ground.

Come visit our Web Site, and check out our Interactive Sailing training CDROM. I and my crew wish you the best in your sailing endeavors! Best to you, Sailor Cull _/)_

Friday, January 27, 2012

Sailing Tactics Revealed: Running Aground!

Welcome aboard to my Sailing Tips Blog! Today we have Running Aground! and Sailing Terms. Please feel free to comment on anything here and visit our Web Site for a free Rules of the Road download!


In every sailor's life lurks the inevitability of an eventual grounding. If you're a sailor and you haven't yet run aground, chances are very good that one day you will.

What to do When You Run Aground

DON'T PANIC -- doing the wrong thing can put you on harder.

Now that you're on the bottom, take a minute to evaluate the situation. Check the bilge to be sure that you haven't holed the boat and aren't taking on water. What is the nature of the bottom? If it's soft sand or grass, chances are good that the boat is undamaged, and that if you need to motor or kedge off you won't grind a hole in the boat.Your objective is to get safely into deeper water.

Motoring off -- If you have a motor or engine your first inclination will be to start it up and try to back out. This may work, but be careful. In sandy or muddy bottoms you are likely to suck sand up into the cooling system and render the motor useless. A powerful engine in shallow water can actually push sand from the stern to under the keel, making the situation worse. If you're on rocks and you reverse hard, you may drag the hull along the rocks and damage or even hole the boat.

Set out an anchor. One of the first things to do is to set out an anchor to keep your boat from being pushed even farther onto the shoal. If you have a dingy you can use it to carry out an anchor. If you don't have a dingy, and if conditions are calm, maybe someone wearing buoyant flotation gear can swim an anchor out. Be aware that this is not an easy task and a person can become totally exhausted very quickly. If your boat is a small one, your anchor is also probably small enough and light enough for you to be able to throw it far enough for it to work, but be
careful if you do this. You don't want to go overboard with it. Keep as much tension on the anchor line as you can. This alone may help free you up, especially if you have a rising tide, or if passing boats create enough of a wake to raise you up momentarily.

What is the state of the tide? If you've gone aground on a rising tide, you may just be able to wait a couple of hours until it rises enough to refloat the boat. If you've gone aground on a falling tide, however, you need to get into deeper water fast, or you may be stuck where you are for an entire tide change. If this happens, and if the boat is likely to end up lying on its side, close up hatches and companionways to keep it from flooding. If you'd be better off lying on one side than on the other, try to kedge off an anchor from what you want to be the low side. You may
also be able to control which side ends up high by shifting crew and gear weight.

Where is the deeper water? It may seem obvious that deeper water lies behind you, but it
might be even deeper beside you. Of course it's not directly in front of you -- if it were, you wouldn't have run aground in the first place. To find where the deeper water is, you have some options. If you have a lead line you can lower it off the boat from all sides to get a measurement of the depth. You can make a lead line by taking a light line and attaching a weight to the end. You could also very quickly put a boat hook or an oar in the water.

How do you get there? If you have a centerboard, raise it. This will decrease the draft, possibly enough to free the boat. Can you sail off? If you were sailing down wind when you ran aground, harden up and try to go to windward. If you were sailing close hauled, tack immediately and move crew weight to leeward. If sailing off on a reach or downwind would put you into deeper water, ease the sails and fall off toward the deeper water. Move crew weight around to heel the boat in the direction which is most likely to help it to slide off - this alone may reduce the boat's draft enough to free her up. If this doesn't work, drop sails, as the wind on the sails will continue to push you harder onto the shallow water. Furl them out of the way. On deck they will become a slippery liability.

Kedging off -- Once you've set an anchor in deeper water, you may be able to winch it in and pull the boat off that way. Again, moving crew weight around may help immeasurably. It may help to rock the boat by shifting crew weight back and forth as you winch in on the anchor.

Use a halyard -- If you know that heeling the boat in one direction will help, hand a halyard to someone in a dingy who can then carefully motor off the boat's beam and pull it over farther. If you don't have a dingy, a crew member can grab a halyard and swing out over the beam of the boat to try to increase heel.

Get off and push - This technique is obviously only safe and effective in very shallow water, and thus will only work with a very shallow draft boat, such as a day sailor or a multihull. Before getting in the water, be sure to put shoes on. Make sure that the boat won't sail off without you, and that you have a way to get back onto the boat.

Accept tow? As a last resort, if all other options have failed. This may require a VHF call to a towing company. Be careful -- a big powerful powerboat may be able to pull with more force than the boat's equipment can handle--the boat's hull can be damaged. The boat must have a cleat strong enough to take the strain of a tow, which may be considerable. If there is no cleat strong enough, consider tying off to the base of the mast. If the mast is stepped through the
deck it will take the strain, if it's stepped on deck it may not. The line used as tow line also must be strong enough to take the strain of towing -- if it breaks under the strain of the pull of a tow boat, it will become a lethal weapon.

When you may not want to refloat the boat -- if you have a hole in the bottom you may be better off right where you are, at least until you've been able to carry out enough of an emergency repair to keep the boat from sinking.

Sailing Terms

After bow spring line- A mooring line fixed to the bow of the boat and leading aft where it is attached to the dock. This prevents the boat from moving forward in its berth. Its opposite, the forward quarter spring line, is used to keep the boat from moving aft in its berth

Bilge- The lowest part of the interior hull below the waterline.

Centerboard - a fin shaped, often removable, board that extends from the bottom of the boat as a keel.

Cleat- a device used tosecure lines made of metal or wood.

Halyard - a line used to hoist sails.

Keel - centerline of a boat running fore and aft; the timber at the very bottom of the hull to which frames are attached.

Kedge -To use an anchor to move a boat by hauling on the anchor rode; a basic anchor type.

Rode - The anchor line and/or chain.

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Friday, April 08, 2011

Around the World Solo Teen Sailing: Is it Safe?

Crazy, courageous, or something else, teens are casting off on a global sailing adventure. With the most recent circumstance of Abby Sunderland, teen world circumnavigation is getting lots of press. But this is not something new with the likes of Robin Lee Graham, who as a teenager set out to sail around the world alone, of 1965, and Tania Aebi who embarked on the same venture at 18 years of age in May, 1985. Both achieved their goals and have excellent books ("Dove", Graham), ("Maiden Voyage", Abei) of their story.

I particularly was caught up in Robin's voyage as I was a teen as well and was up dated frequently by National Geographic Magazine who covered the story. He was sixteen when he headed west from Southern California in his 24-foot sloop called Dove. Unlike the record breaking non stop teen sailors of today, Robin was out to sea for 1738 days. He stopped to explore, repair; took his time. He met the woman he would marry and did so along the way.

Tanei, on the other hand, left from New York City Harbor heading towards Bermuda. She had hardly any sailing or navigation experience and was not properly prepared for the voyage, but through her determination and common sense, she sailed back into New York City over 2 years later. I have met Tanei a number of times a various boat shows where she and I both had booths selling our wares: her book and my Learn To Sail cdrom.

The recent press of the search and rescue of Abby Sunderland has brought critics out of the woodwork creating a controversy of the safety of teen world solo sailing. They question the parents' responsiblity and judgement in letting them go, some even to the extent of questioning wheather they love the kid or notoriety more!

Are they forgetting about Robin Lee Graham who was just 16 when he set sail?

And how about Tania Aebi, who with little experience, no GPS (same with Graham) and a boat that had factory defects that could have put her in treacherous situations?

Right now Abby Sunderland, sure defends her right to sail at a young age. After all, her brother successfully did!

From her blog:

"There are plenty of things people can think of to blame for my situation; my age, the time of year and many more. The truth is, I was in a storm and you don't sail through the Indian Ocean without getting in at least one storm. It wasn't the time of year it was just a Southern Ocean storm. Storms are part of the deal when you set out to sail around the world."

Looking around I found that Robin Lee Graham, was the 1st recorded to set out..following:

Tania Aebi, Age 18, Completion: 892 Days

Brian Caldwell, Hawaii, US, Age 19 Completion: 477 Days,

David Dicks, Australia, Age 17 Completion: 265 Days

Jesse Martin, Australia, Age 17 Completion: 327 Days

Zac Sunderland (Abby's Brother), California, US, Age 17 Completion: 327 Days

Michael Perham, England, Age 16 Completion: 284 Days

Jessica Watson, Australia, Age 16 Completion: 210 Days

So what have you to say? Are they too young? Is it just a Teen Sailing Fad? Should there be a minimum age for circumnavigation? Feel free to post your comments. Look forward to hearing from you!

Sailor Cull

Happy Sails to You! _/)__

Come visit our Web Site, sign up for our Free Monthly Sailing Tips newsletter, and check out our Interactive Sailing trainingCDROM. I and my crew wish you the best in your sailing endeavors! Best to you, Sailor Cull _/)_

Check out for fabulous information on these adventurists

Sunday, November 22, 2009

Rules of the Road...Who has the Right of Way?

Welcome aboard to my Sailing Tips Blog! Today we have Determining Risk of Collision, Sailing Terms and Deviation and Variation. Please feel free to comment on anything here and visit our Web Site for a free Rules of the Road download!

The Right of Way rules do not technically come into effect between boats until there is the possibility of collision.
Sailboats should never get so close to each other so that a risk of collision exists. vessels should pass portside to portside and as far to starboard as water depth permits.

When two sailboats meet there are three rules to follow.

1. The boat on the port tack gives way to the boat on the starboard tack.
2. When on the same tack, the windward boat gives way to the leeward boat.
3. The overtaking vessel keeps clear of the slower vessel.

To learn more about the rules of the road, download a Free! "Rules of the Road" article with graphics at our site at

Sailing Terms

Piloting-Navigation performed using visual references such as aids to navigation.
Aids to Navigation-Established markers on land or sea that aid sailors to avoid danger and fix their position.
Bearing-The direction of an object to an observer, such as a buoy or other boat.
Chart-A nautical map.
Nun- A buoy that is not lit but numbered, red and pointed, and always on the starboard side when returning from seaward, port side when going out.
Can- A buoy that is not lit but numbered, green and flat, and always on the port side when returning from seaward, starboard side when going out.

Piloting- Deviation and Variation

There are two types of Poles; the Geographic North and South Poles, also called True North and True South, and the Magnetic North and South Poles. The Geographic poles are stationary. The earth is a big magnet with magnetic lines of force running from the magnetic north pole to the magnetic south pole. The magnetic pole is located in northern Canada; somewhat west of the Geographic Pole. It's location changes over long periods of time.

Variation is the angle between the magnetic north and the true north. This is indicated by a compass when it is free of any nearby magnetic influences.

A magnetized pointer, or needle, that is allowed to spin freely, will point to the magnetic north pole. On a boat compass, this needle is situated in the middle of a ring which shows 360 degrees. Now matter in which direction the boat heads, the compass still points to Magnetic North.


Boats with lots of metal have their own magnetic fields and the compass may respond to it and be pulled somewhat away from the direction of magnetic north. When this happens, it is called compass deviation and needs to be compensated for. This can be done by installing small internal magnets in the compass, or, you can make up a deviation chart for your boat and refer to it when figuring out what course to steer by your compass. This especially applies to the small boat sailor who won't be using a mounted compass with magnets.


Often you will be given a course to steer from one place to another in true directions. This means that you will have to convert this to magnetic in order to steer this course with your compass. There is a very consistent and simple rule to follow when going from true to magnetic.

In the Eastern US and Canada, to go from a true course to a magnetic course, you add a west variation.
To go from a magnetic course to a true course, you subtract a west variation.

In the Western US and Canada, to go from a true course to a magnetic course, you subtract an east variation
To go from a magnetic course to a true course, you add an east variation.

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Friday, October 09, 2009

Learn to Sail: Person Overboard!

  Person Overboard!  Sailing Rescue Techniques

     Most one man-overboard drills usually consist of throwing over a cushion and returning to pick it up by the strap.  A good sized fireplace log is a better way to do the practice because it is much more awkward to get aboard.

   There are four important steps to retrieving a person who has gone overboard. The first is to return without delay to a position near the victim. The second is to maneuver your boat close enough so you connect him or her to the boat. The third is to get the person aboard, and the fourth is to see that they are ok.

   The moment someone goes over the side, a boat cushion or life preserver should be tossed to him/her.

  Make sure to keep him/her in sight, and as the distance widens, it is increasingly important to maintain visual contact.Even when you are alone on the boat, keeping the victim in sight is second only to getting the boat back to him. Everything becomes more practical as you get in closer proximity to the person in the water.

There are three methods of rescue. I am posting them one at a time. Come back for the others!

Method One...This method involves jibing to rescue the person over board.  Only do this in light winds to avoid capsizing.  Remember to stay in constant communication with the victim. 1.When a person falls overboard, immediately yell "Crew Overboard!"  2.Next, throw a flotation device toward the victim and keep a close eye on them.3.Jibe the boat.4.Now quickly head up to a close-hauled course.  5.Retrieve the person on the windward side of the boat.  Let the mainsail out to stop.

  Resist the temptation to have someone go in the water to help the victim - you may lose two people. If the person in the water is unable to help himself you then may have to send a spare person into the water to help. In this case make surethere is a line securely attaching the boat and the would-be rescuer. Plan ahead how you are going to get this person back aboard.

Come visit our Web Site, sign up for our Free Monthly Sailing Tips newsletter, and check out our Interactive Sailing training CDROM. I and my crew wish you the best in your sailing endeavors! Best to you, Sailor Cull _/)_

Sunday, March 08, 2009

Sailing Theory, Sailing Terms and Weather

Welcome aboard to my Sailing Tips Blog! Today we have Sailing Theory, Sailing Terms and Weather- The Sea Breeze. Please feel free to comment on anything here and visit our Web Site for a free Rules of the Road download!

Sailing Theory (An Excerpt from our Learn to Sail CDROM)

The sum of all wind pressure on the sail is called wind force. The center of that force, which is above the water, is called the center of effort (CE).
The center of the force below the surface of the water is calledthe center of lateral resistance (CLR). This is the point where all the boat's resistance to sideways pressure is concentrated.
A boat performs best when the two forces are in balance. This is when they are positioned one over the other in a vertical line through the boat's sail and hull. Your job as a sailor is to keep these two forces in proper balance so that your boat will sail correctly.
You keep the boat balanced by shifting your weight and adjusting your sail.
Your boat has weather helm when you have to constantly pull the tiller towards you to keep the boat straight on course.
Lee helm is when you do the opposite; pushing the tiller towards the sail.
Most boats are designed to have a little weather helm. However, too much of it can make sailing difficult in anything other than light breezes.
Most boats are designed to have a little weather helm. However, too much of itcan make sailing difficult in anything other than light breezes.
If your boat has a lot of weather helm, it means the CE and the CLR are not in alignment.There is more sail pressure aft of the CLR than forward of it.
To correct the balance, 1. Shift your weight aft (back towards the stern).2. Pull up the centerboard.4. If your boat has a jib, ease (let out) the mainsail.5. Try any combination of these.

Sailing Terms

Amidships- the middle of the boat.Backwind- the wind flowing off the sail.
Close Hauled- one of the points of sail; sailing as close to the wind as possible.
Dead Astern- straight behind
Flaking- Folding the sail.
Glide Zone- the distance it take a boat to stop after turning head to wind.
Heave To- to head the boat into the wind in order to slow it down or stop it.

Weather- The Sea Breeze (An Excerpt from our Learn to Sail CDROM)

As a sailor you should know about local winds. The cause of these winds is difference in temperature; cold air is heavier than warm air. The most popular of these local winds is the sea breeze.
Warm air over the land rises...And is replaced by cooler air sinking over the ocean.
At night the opposite happens. The land quickly loses its heat at night and oftenfalls to a lower temperature than the water. This results in a light offshore evening wind.
On a lake or river, the warm air can rise at the edges to be replaced by the cool air over the water. This can result in a nice breeze for sailing.

Forcast for a Typical Sea Breeze Day

Morning Very Light Winds No Weather Systems Near Clear Sky
High Temperatures But Cooler Near the Shore

Afternoon Wind coming from water starting Midday Cumulus Clouds over land
Clear over water Winds Speeds 8 - 12 knots

Evening Winds Decreasing as sun slips over horizon

Come visit our Web Site, sign up for our Free Monthly Sailing Tips newsletter, and check out our Interactive Sailing trainingCDROM. I and my crew wish you the best in your sailing endeavors!
Best to you, Sailor Cull _/)_

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Tuesday, June 24, 2008

MULTIHULLS Part 2: The Disadvantages, and Sailing Terms

Welcome aboard to my Sailing Tips Blog! Here we have MULTIHULLS Part 2: The Disadvantages, and Sailing Terms. Please feel free to comment on anything here and visit our Web Site for a free Rules of the Road download!

Disadvantages-- In serious wind and seas, a monohull sailor can, if absolutely exhausted and no longer able to steer, strike all sail, lock all hatches, and go below to wait it out and hope for the best. A well-found boat will most likely allow this. The boat will roll around like a cork, and even if it rolls 360 degrees it should be ok, as long as the mast doesn't break off and put a hole in the boat. A Multihull in huge seas, however, must always have a helmsman, or some other way to keep the boat pointed into the waves. Without this, the boat will end up in the wave troughs, with the waves beam on; this is an invitation to capsize. Knowing this, the ocean going sailor should be prepared with a parachute sea anchor and with attachment points for it on the boat that are absolutely bombproof. Properly deployed, a parachute anchor will allow a multihull to ride out a hurricane in near comfort, as it keeps the bows pointed into the wind and waves and with several hundred feet of line led out to the sea anchor, there is no jerking or lunging on the line. Once the sea anchor is properly set, the crew can go below and safely wait out the storm. This assumes that there are no dangers, such as a landmass or reef systems, lying in wait downwind. Plenty of sea room is needed for these manuevers.

Marinas-- Finding space in a marina for a multihull is not nearly as easy as it is for a monohull. They require either an end space or a double berth, which will likely cost more than a single.

Weight constraints -- Since a multihull sits on the water instead of in it, unlike a keel boat, the payload, or weight carrying capacity of the boat, can not safely be exceeded. A catamaran, with essentially two full boats in the water, can carry more weight than a trimaran of the same length, which consists of one full hull and two floats. A 35 foot monohull can carry much more weight in stores and equipment than a 35 foot trimaran, and this is a consideration when provisioning a boat for cruising. The cruiser in a small multihull may find himself reprovisioning along the way more often than the cruiser in a small monohull.

Trailerability-- Large multihulls cannot be shipped over the road, due to their wide beam. Only some of the smaller, folding designs will allow trailering.

Haulouts also can be more complicated for multihulls. There are yards that have travelifts wide enough for them, or cranes to lift them, or railways to pull them out of the water on tracks, but these yards are fewer and farther between than those that can't handle the extra wide beam.

Conclusions -- It seems that outside of a couple of minor inconveniences, a multihull is the only boat that makes any sense. If this is the case, why doesn't everyone have one? There are a couple of reasons. One is the unfortunate reputation they earned early on in their evolution. The other is the expense involved in achieving ownership of a quality cat or tri. These boats are expensive to build, whether as one offs or as production models. With a trimaran, 3 hulls (amas) and crossarms (akas) to connect them all together are needed. For production this requires expensive tooling up for a company to invest in even before they ever get a boat on line. There are also a lot more materials needed to build two or three hulls than are needed for the one finished hull of a keel boat.

Other than a production model the buyer has the option of having one custom built by a reputable yard or of building it himself. Neither of these options is cheap, fast, or easy.

There are used multihulls on the market, and there are a lot of good ones out there. There are also a lot of not so good ones. It's critical to hire an experienced multihull surveyor to be assured that the boat was built and maintained properly and is sound.

Sailing Terms

Amas-The outboard hulls of a trimaran. Ballast-A weight at the bottom of a boat to keep it stable. Ballasts can be placed inside the hull of the boat or externally in a keel. Beam- The widest part of a boat. Draft- The depth of a boat, measured from the deepest point to the waterline. The water must be at least this depth, or the boat will run aground. Catamaran-A twin-hulled boat. Catamaran sailboats are known for their ability to plane and are faster than single-hulled boats in some conditions. Hatch-A sliding or hinged opening in the deck, providing access to the cabin or space below. Heel-When a boat tilts away from the wind, caused by wind blowing on the sails and pulling the top of the mast over. Some heel is normal when under sail. Monohull-A boat that has only one hull, as opposed to multihull boats such as catamarans or trimarans. Multihull-Any boat with more than one hull, such as a catamaran or trimaran. Payload- Weight carrying capacity of the boat. Trimaran-A boat with a center hull and two smaller outer hulls.

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Come visit our Web Site, sign up for our Free Monthly Sailing Tips newsletter, and check out our Interactive Sailing training CDROM. I and my crew wish you the best in your sailing endeavors! Best to you, Sailor Cull _/)_

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